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Tu Ruizhi
Wuhan University, China (中国武汉大学 涂瑞志)

As we scrutinize Thomas Hardy’s novels-- Tess of the d’Urbervilles, The Return of the Native, A Pair of Blue Eyes and Jude the Obscure--, peer into the psyche of his heroines, penetrate through the ulterior of the hearts of Tess Ddurbeyfield, Eustacia Vye, Elfride Swancourt and Sue Bridehead, we will perceive that they each has a prison in their most interior souls, where they are always striving for equality, fame, wealth, social rank or dignity; struggling against vanity, carnal desire, states of corporeal or spiritual narcissism. Psychoanalytically, their inner conflicts, anxieties and dreams are originated from their neurosis. Their neurotic needs urge acceptance, affection, power, independence as well as personal accomplishments. Their fears, taciturn, or seclusiveness, which stem from their apprehensive girlhood, become greater when there aren’t any devices to protect them like rites, customs or perfect families. However, these emotional forces that are involved in their lives drive a neurotic. They represent ways of coping with their life despite these problems called "neurotic trends". People, like the afore-said heroines, who become neurotic basically grow up in environments that are not safe or imperfect. The dependence they have as infants creates a basic anxiety in all of them. They are growing up in a family that does not provide a safe place or noble blood, they turn away from themselves, develop a strategy for safety that makes them more vulnerable than ever. Being avid for Glory, Unity as well as Self-actualization, their neurotic needs should be achieved and realized promptly. As for Hardy’s heroines, in order to uncoil their inner conflicts, anxieties; visualized their neurotic needs and activate their exuberant dreams, they tend simultaneously to three strategies-- moving toward people, moving against people and moving away from people. Being morassed in predicament of neurosis, the dilemma between their inner indication and corporeal desires smashes their ambition in the end, and tragedies or disasters follow on their heels.


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